Step 6: Monitoring and Evaluation

The final step in the development of a sustainable freight transport strategy is to monitor and evaluate performance and progress. This would entail collecting, monitoring and analysing data during strategy implementation to evaluate progress and impact. A monitoring and evaluation data system should be:

Monitoring and Evaluation

The final step in the development of a sustainable freight transport strategy is to monitor and evaluate performance and progress. This would entail collecting, monitoring and analysing data during strategy implementation to evaluate progress and impact. A monitoring and evaluation data system should be:

Comprehensive Consistent Cost effective Transparent Accurate Accessible Relevant


When considering the indicators required for monitoring and assessing progress towards the desired goals, a balance between convenience and comprehensiveness needs to be achieved. A smaller set of indicators, using easily available data, is more convenient to collect and analyse but may overlook important sustainability-related impacts. A larger set of indicators may provide a comprehensive assessment, but data collection and processing could be extremely expensive which may undermine the monitoring process.

As noted under step 3 on Targets and Indicators, it is extremely important to define, early in the planning process, the indicators required for monitoring and to involve multiple stakeholders for effective and efficient data collection and double counting avoidance. If indicators are not selected carefully, they can consume extensive resources and undermine the usefulness and value of the data generated. International and development organisations can play an important role in strengthening the capacity to collect, analyse, and manage data and indicators. 

Specific methodologies and processes need to be established to quantify each of the KPIs and indicators identified for monitoring. Examples of indicators used for Monitoring, Reporting, Verification (MRV) various Sustainable Freight Transport Strategies are compiled in the table below.

Following the quantification of indicators, a comparison is made between the estimated values and specific pre-established thresholds. If the value of the indicators quantified during the monitoring process is lower than the establishged threshold (or does not reach its anticipated level), then the action has failed to meet its set objective. Alternatively, the measures are believed to be consistent with the objective, if the value of the quantified indicators, meets the threshold. By routinely assessing the performance of the freight transport sector in terms of its ability to balance the various objectives under the three dimensions of sustainability i.e. economic, social, and environmental, gaps and needs can be assessed in a systematic and consistent manner and corrections/adjustments can be introduced in a timely manner.

Examples of Indicators selected for monitoring and
evaluation Sustainable Freight Transport Strategies




Objectives/ Targets

Monitor, Report, Verify (MRV) Indicators

California Sustainable Freight Action Plan  State

Utilise a partnership of federal, State, regional, local, community, and industry stakeholders to move freight in California on a modern, safe, integrated, and resilient system that continues to support California’s economy, jobs, and healthy, liveable communities. 

Transporting freight reliably and efficiently by zero-emission equipment everywhere feasible, and near-zero emission equipment powered by clean, low- carbon renewable fuels everywhere else.

  1. System    Efficiency Target: Improve freight system efficiency 25% by increasing the value of goods and services produced from the freight sector, relative to the amount of carbon that it produces by 2030. 
  2. Transition to Zero Emission Technology Target: Deploy over 100,000 freight transport vehicles and equipment capable of zero emission operation and maximize near-zero emission freight vehicles and equipment powered by renewable energy by 2030. 
  3. Increased Competitiveness and Economic Growth Targets: Establish  a target or targets for increased state competitiveness and future economic growth within the freight and goods    movement industry.
  1. CO2/GDP 
  2. Share of zero emission freight vehicles (ZEVs) 

Future of Freight 


A freight and logistics sector that is cost-efficient, reliable, resilient, environmentally sustainable and valued by society.

  1. Reliable: The National Freight Network and increased modal shift will support efforts to reduce congestion across the network, delivering more predictable freight journey times. 
  2. Resilient: The NFN, modal shift and better prioritisation of the freight network, will diversify freight journeys, providing better adaptability and resilience to disruption across the freight network.

  3. Environmentally sustainable: Supporting modal shift will contribute to achieving emissions targets. The NFN will support targeted roll-out of future energy infrastructure. The NFN will also support more strategic locating of freight and logistics land closer to strategic transport links reducing noise and air pollution impacts.
  1. Air quality monitors: To improve air quality, Government is funding the roll out of air quality monitors at more than 100 railway stations across England and Wales. 
  2. In consultation with industry, the government will undertake a review of the pros and cons of introducing a reporting requirement on resilience and risk management across the sector. 
  3. The Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) was introduced in 2013 to progressively improve the design and operational efficiency of ships and their propulsion systems. A further package of measures on carbon intensity and energy efficiency for existing ships is due to enter into force in 2023/24. 

This list is non-exhaustive. 

Canadian Green Shipping Corridors Framework 


Canada has developed a national green shipping corridors framework to guide the people and organizations who are developing the green shipping corridors. To make sure that green shipping corridors are implemented consistently, our framework allows and empowers all parties to work together to eliminate greenhouse gas emissions and tackle the climate crisis.  

This framework will showcase Canada's leadership in reducing the environmental impacts of our marine transportation sector, and help Canada stay competitive. Being at the forefront of reducing marine emissions will create new opportunities for Canadian clean tech and clean fuel innovators, and contribute to Canada's economic growth and prosperity. 

As part of this plan, we committed to: 

  • Developing a national action plan to help the marine sector to reduce emissions 
  • Greening the federal marine fleet, which includes developing plans to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from our fleets 
  • Working with international partners to develop ways to reduce black carbon in the Arctic from international shipping, and  
  • Investigating zero-emission technologies and clean fuels for other types of vehicles and for use in off-road equipment, including port equipment 

Involves, but is not limited to: 

  • Collecting and tracking data via effective and reliable methods and metrics that use a recognized well-to-wake lifecycle assessment method 
  • Working together to establish key targets and report publicly on progress towards meeting them 
  • Aligning each green shipping corridor's greenhouse gas emission targets with national targets 
  • Sharing data and information and building on best practices, while respecting the need for confidentiality for commercial or financial reasons 

Smartway Initiative

Shippers, carriers, freight transport/logistics service providers

Help companies advance supply chain sustainability by measuring, benchmarking, and fostering freight transportation efficiency.

  1. Catalyse change across the entire freight supply chain.
  2. Serve as global role model for other nations – including regions where extensive freight transport-related GHG emissions growth is projected.
  3. Use SmartWay brand to identify green freight leadership.
  4. Act as a clearinghouse for information sharing and exchange on greener goods movement.
  1. Total miles driven.
  2. Revenue miles versus empty miles.
  3. Road speed and operational characteristics.
  4. Total fuel consumed.
  5. Alternative fuel (e.g., biodiesel, natural gas) consumed.
  6. Number of trucks by class.
  7. Fuel and payload by truck class.
  8. Truck model engine year.
  9. Payloads
  10. Trailer capacity volume and utilisation
  11. Average idle-hours per truck.
  12. Ton-miles driven.
  13. Type of cargo by commodity group.

A.P. Møller - Mærsk A/S

Transport, logistics and energy provider

A.P. Moller - Maersk enables its customers to trade and grow by transporting goods anywhere. Our business model supports our vision of providing truly integrated logistics that create value for our customers. By combining a leadership position in Oceans with Logistics & Services and Terminals, and by realising synergies across our business, we create better outcomes for our customers. 
  1. We will take leadership in the decarbonisation of logistics  
  2. We will ensure that our people thrive at work by providing a safe and inspiring workplace  
  3. We operate based on responsible business practices
  1. GHG emissions 
  2. Fatalities 
  3. Degree    of integration of human rights     in sustainability governance 
  4. Number of women and nationalities in management and leadership positions 
  5. Number of Non- contained spills above 10 m3 
  6. Number of bribery, fraud and facilitation payments 
  7. Profit and Loss, CAPEX 

This list is non-exhaustive.